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2021考研英语:句子翻译的转化方式

作者:考研小编 2020-10-23 15:26 来源:互联网
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由于英汉两种语言在语法和表达方式等方面存在着许多差异,因此英译汉时常常有必要改变表达方式,使译文通顺流畅、地道可读。这种变通技巧就是转换法(shift of perspective)。下面我们具体来看下2021考研英语:句子翻译的转化方式的相关资讯吧!

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转换的形式多种多样,大体可分为7种:①词类转换,②句子成分转换,③表达方式转换,④自然语序与倒装语序转换;⑤正面表达与反面表达转换,⑥主动式与被动式转换,⑦分句转换。

  一、词类转换

  词类转换是指英语中的某一词类译成汉语时转换成另一词类。

  (一)英语名词、介词、形容词或副词转换为汉语动词

  (1) The cultivation of a hobby and new forms of interest is therefore a policy of first importance to a public man.因此,对于一个从事社会活动的人来讲,培养一种爱好和新的情趣方式,乃是至关重要的对策。

  (2) The Red Army Men marched on bravely against the piercing wind.红军冒着刺骨的寒风英勇前进。

  (3) All were unconscious that this experience was a test of character; and, when the first excitement was over, felt that they had done well, and deserved praise.大家都没有认识到这番经验却是一次个性的考验,最初的兴奋过去以后,又觉得自己已经干得不错了,理应受到赞扬。

  (4) He appeared at her side, breathing audibly, a moment after she reached the stop. She gazed ahead, rigid.她到车站不一会儿,他便出现在她的身旁,听见他喘息的声音。她凝视着前方,表情严峻。

  (5) Yet to both classes the need of an alternative outlook, of a change of atmosphere, of a diversion of effort, is essential.然而,对所有这两种类型的人来说,变换一下看法、改变一下环境和转换一下注意力都是最基本的需要。

  (6) …and it was on the first stage of this journey, in Kenya, that she received the news of her father's death and her own accession to the throne. ……就在此行的第一站肯尼亚,她接到了父亲去世并由她本人继承王位的消息。

  (二)英语动词、副词转换为汉语名词、形容词

  (1) The inflammation is characterized by red, swelling, fever, and pain.炎症的特点是红、肿、热、痛。

  (2) The visiting guests were escorted to the Yellow Crane Tower last Sunday.上星期天,来访的客人和陪同人员一起参观了黄鹤楼。

  (3) Our government shows great concern for the Chinese residents abroad.我国政府十分关心海外华侨。

  (4) Formality has always characterized their relationship.他们之间的关系,有一个特点,就是以礼相待。

  (5) Most US spy satellites are designed to burn up in the earth's atmosphere after completing their missions.美国绝大多数间谍卫星,按其设计,是在完成使命后,在大气层中焚毁。

  (三)英语名词转换为汉语形容词、副词

  (1) He added: "I understand and respect those views, but I deeply believe in the correctness of my decision." 他还说:"我理解并尊重他们的看法,但我深信我的决定是正确的。"

  (2) They came back game and glee.他们兴高采烈地回来了。

  二、句子成分转换

  句子成分转换是指英语中的某一句子成分译成汉语时转换成另一种句子成分。句子成分转换在主语、谓语、宾语、定语、状语和补语之间展开。例如:

  (1) You can always tell the somebodies from the nobodies at a cocktail party. The somebodies come late.在鸡尾酒会上人们常常可以看出大人物和无名小卒来。那些迟到的就是大人物。(主语转换为表语;谓语转换为主语)

  (2) With the fear of largely imaginary plots against his leadership, his self-confidence seemed totally to desert him.由于害怕有人阴谋推翻他的领导,他似乎完全丧失了自信。但所谓的阴谋在很大程度上是他自己假想出来的。(主语转换为宾语,宾语转换为主语)

  (3) Cheerful, efficient and warm-hearted, they will do everything to make your journey smooth and comfortable.他们乐观、能干、热情,总是想方设法使你一路上顺利舒适。(状语转换为谓语)

  (4) Her presence of mind had not completely deserted her; but she could not have trusted herself to speak.她还没有完全失去镇静,一时却又找不出话可说。(主语转换为宾语,宾语转换为主语)

  (5) This is the unexpected kind of remark that makes me like the colonel; there is a touch of rough poetry about him.正是这种出人意料的言论使我喜欢上了上校。他这个人还有那么点诗意呢。(主语转换为宾语;介词宾语转换为主语)

       下面是小编给大家整理的翻译必背句型,一起来掌握吧!

  2021考研英语:翻译必背句型

  1. leave sb the choice of … or … 要么…,要么… (选择类典型句)

  Our cruel and unrelenting enemy leaves us the choice of brave resistance or the most abject submission.

  敌人冷酷无情/铁石心肠,我们要么顽强抵抗,要么屈膝投降。

  The age of 30s leaves you the choice of marriage or remaining a bachelor.

  年过三十,要么成婚,要么单身。

  2. be the instrument of sth 引来某事物的人或事 (使动类典型句)

  能够让你幸福,我愿意付出我的一切。

  If I can be the instrument of your happiness, I will sacrifice all my belongings.

  3. it was the memory / memories of 追溯到… (回忆类典型句)

  Perhaps it was the memories of the 1964 Tokyo Olympics and the 1988 Seoul Olympics, which were considered turning points in their nations' development.

  追溯到1964年东京及1988年汉城举办的奥运会,可能分别被视为日韩两国发展的转折点。

  It was the memory of 1945 Hiroshima and Nagasaki suffered from the attacks of atomic bomb, from which originated the term of “Zero Ground”.

  追溯到1945年广岛和长崎遭受原子弹攻击,从而形成了“零地带”这个术语。

  4. on the premise / ground / prerequisite / proposition / hypothesis / presuposition that 基于一个前提… (假设类典型句)

  中国政府在宣布实行和平统一的方针时,是基于一个前提,即当时的台湾当局坚持世界上只有一个中国,台湾是中国的一部分。

  The Chinese declared to implement the policy of peaceful reunification on the premise that the then Taiwan authorities maintained that there is only one China in the world and Taiwan is only one part of China.

  Advice to investors was based on the premise that interest rates would continue to fall.

  对投资者的建议是以利率会继续下跌为根据的。

  5. be bound to 必定…;一定… (意愿类典型句)

  西部大开发一定能成为沟通世界各国和中国的一座桥梁,促进中国和世界经济共同发展,共同繁荣。

  The Great Western Development is bound to be a bridge between China and the rest world, promoting the common economic development and prosperity of China and the world at large.

  Just wars are bound to triumph over wars of aggression.

  正义战争必然要战胜侵略战争。


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