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句子简化题的解题方法浅谈 - 李晨昱

作者:李晨昱 2020-01-02 15:00 来源:李晨昱
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句子简化题是托福阅读中非常重要的一个题型,虽然这个题型在改革以后的数量有一定程度的减少,但是掌握这种题型对于我们充分理解句子,还是有着相当大的意义。下面我来带大家结合真题突破这道题型。

首先看题目要求

How to Recognize Vocabulary Questions

文中有一个句子用阴影标示出来。

题目形式如下:

Which of the following best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence? Incorrect answer choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

两个重要错误:

改变句意

句意遗漏

注意:正确选项并不是对于划线句子的同义替换,因为这里的我们要的只是关键信息:

那么,关键信息包含什么呢?

首先,非常重要的就是逻辑关系,所谓逻辑不对,一切全废!这道题是典型的逻辑先行的题目,掌握了逻辑关系,很多相对简单的问题就迎刃而解。

这里我把逻辑关系给大家做一个整合。

逻辑关系主要分为:因果,转折/让步,对比/比较,并列和条件。


其次,还要对于句子大体意思有一定程度的把握,那么,怎么看出大体意思?


其实最直白的就是对象是谁,做了什么 (一般删掉修饰语:定语从句,介词短语结构,时间地点状语)。

注意:若两个句子有对比关系,因为两个分句中被比较的事物本质可能都差不多,所以表修饰的定语从句才是关键,这时候定语是关键。


最后,再去对比选项选答案

排除有明显与主要信息矛盾的选项,排除无中生有的逻辑,选出正确答案

错误的选项通常为:

①混:张冠李戴,偷换对象

②偏:程度细节偏差

③反:与原文明显冲突或者不符

④无:无中生有,加入文章中没有的描述


接下来我们用TPO的真题来进一步夯实解题方法。


1.Virtually all animals experience pain. Pain is a distress call from the body signaling some damaging stimulus or internal disorder. It is one of the most important sensations because it is translated into a negative reaction, such as withdrawal from danger. Rare individuals who are born without the ability to feel pain may die from such condition as a ruptured appendix because they are unaware of the danger.

Which sentence below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

A.Escaping from danger is a negative reaction, but it is the most important thing an individual learns.

B. The ability to sense pain is extremely important because pain signals the body to respond to a threat.

C. Experiencing pain is one type of reaction to a negative stimulus; another type is avoiding danger.

D. We experience a lot of sensations, and the most important ones are translated into appropriate actions.

 

解析:原句中的because可以看出其逻辑关系为因果关系,而且有程度词绝对化词汇most。根据most这个绝对化词汇我们可以排除C选项。因为原文当中带有绝对化词汇而选项中没有,那么这个选项为必错选项。然后A句中为转折关系——but,D句中没有明显的逻辑关系,只有B有because 这个词,同时B中的extremely可以作为most的同义替换。所以正确答案为B。

 

2.In 1967 the federal government placed the American alligator on the endangered species list. In the next decade, protected by hunters and averaging about 40 eggs per nest, the alligator made a strong comeback. It was reclassified from endangered to threatened in Florida, Louisiana, and Texas, where the vast majority of the animals live. As a threatened species, it is still protected from excessive harvesting by hunters; however, limited hunting is allowed in some areas to keep the population from growing too large.

   Which sentence below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

A. Alligators are still protected, but hunters are allowed to kill a certain number to control  their population in some places.

B. In order to prevent alligators from growing too large, hunters can harvest adult   alligators that exceed a specified size.

C. Hunting is restricted to areas where alligators are no longer a threatened species and therefore do not need protection.

D. Alligators are not more threatened than ever by excessive hunting, and hunters should  not be allowed to destroy all of them.

 

解析:

   做这道题目的时候,首先快度浏览原文,得到原文的逻辑关系为转折(however)。接下来快速浏览四个选项,不难发现,只有A选项是转折关系,由but同义替换however。其他的几个选项,B,C选项 therefore 表示因果关系,D选项的more  than 是比较关系,这三个选项都和转折相差甚远。因此正确答案选A。

 

 

3、He refused to develop projectiontechnology, reasoning that if he made and sold projectors, then exhibitors  would purchase only one machine—a projector—from him instead of several.

Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

A. Edison was more interested in developing a variety of machines than in developing a technology based on only one.

B. Edison refused to work on projection technology because he did not think exhibitors would replace their projectors with newer machines.

C. Edison did not want to develop projection technology because it limited the number of machines he could sell.

D. Edison would not develop projection technology unless exhibitors agreed to purchase more than one projector from him.

 

解析:

原文隐含因果逻辑关系,reasoning,而且原文说refuse,是否定,从逻辑关系其实就可以判断出选择出正确选项3,注意同义替换purchase only one machine和it limited the number of machines he could sell

选项1比较关系未提及;

选项2虽然是因果,但是后面的原因是原文没有说的;

选项4unless是条件的关系

 

以上就是托福阅读中句子简化题的解题方法和典型例题。希望给大家一些启发。祝愿大家能在托福考试中取得好成绩!





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